The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) allows individuals to continue their group health plan coverage in certain situations. Specifically, COBRA requires group health plans to offer continuation coverage to covered employees and dependents when coverage would otherwise be lost due to certain specific events.
These events include the death of a covered employee, termination or a reduction in the hours of a covered employee’s employment, divorce of a covered employee and spouse, and a child’s loss of dependent status under the plan.
COBRA sets rules for how and when continuation coverage must be offered and provided, how employees and their families may elect continuation coverage and when continuation coverage may be terminated.
Employers may require individuals to pay for COBRA coverage. Group health coverage for COBRA participants is usually more expensive than coverage for active employees, since many employers pay a part of the premium for active employees.
Most private-sector employers that maintain group health plans for their employees must comply with COBRA’s continuation coverage requirements. This includes, for example, corporations, partnerships and tax-exempt organizations. However, COBRA does not apply to group health plans maintained by small employers. A “small employer” means an employer that had fewer than 20 employees on typical business days during the preceding calendar year.
When Does COBRA Apply?
COBRA also applies to plans sponsored by state and local governments. It does not apply, however, to plans sponsored by the federal Government or by churches and certain church-related organizations.
Once an employer determines that it is subject to COBRA, it must look at its plans. An employer-sponsored welfare benefit plan is subject to COBRA if it provides medical care. “Medical care” broadly includes medical, dental, vision and drug coverage. The following table indicates whether welfare benefits commonly offered by employers are subject to COBRA:
Who is Entitled to COBRA Coverage?
A group health plan is required to offer COBRA continuation coverage only to qualified beneficiaries and only after a qualifying event has occurred.
A qualified beneficiary is an individual who was covered by a group health plan on the day before a qualifying event occurred and who is an employee, an employee’s spouse or former spouse, or an employee’s dependent child. In addition, any child born to or placed for adoption with a covered employee during a period of continuation coverage is automatically considered a qualified beneficiary.
An employer must offer COBRA coverage only when group health plan coverage ends (or would end) due to a qualifying event. Not all losses of health coverage are caused by qualifying events. For example, a cancellation of health plan coverage—whether at the employee’s request or because of the employee’s failure to pay premiums—is not, by itself, a qualifying event that triggers the requirement to offer COBRA coverage.
The period of COBRA coverage offered to qualifying beneficiaries is known as the “maximum coverage period.” The length of the maximum coverage period depends on the type of qualifying event that has occurred. There are situations where the maximum coverage period can be extended (due to disability or a second qualifying event) or terminated early (for example, when COBRA premiums are not paid).
The following chart outlines the seven qualifying events under COBRA and the corresponding maximum coverage periods:
What Benefits Must Be Offered?
Qualified beneficiaries must be offered coverage that is identical to that available to similarly situated beneficiaries who are not receiving COBRA coverage under the plan. Generally, this will be the same coverage that the qualified beneficiary had immediately before qualifying for continuation coverage. A change in the benefits under the plan for the active employees will also apply to qualified beneficiaries. Qualified beneficiaries must be allowed to make the same choices given to non-COBRA beneficiaries under the plan, such as during periods of open enrollment by the plan.
What are the Rules for Electing COBRA?
COBRA requires group health plans to give qualified beneficiaries an election period during which they can decide whether to elect continuation coverage. COBRA also gives qualified beneficiaries specific election rights.
At a minimum, each qualified beneficiary must be given at least 60 days to choose whether to elect COBRA coverage. This 60-day period is measured from the later of: (1) the date the election notice is provided; or (2) the date on which the qualified beneficiary would otherwise lose coverage under the group health plan due to the qualifying event.
Each qualified beneficiary must be given an independent right to elect continuation coverage. This means that when several individuals (such as an employee, his or her spouse and their dependent children) become qualified beneficiaries due to the same qualifying event, each individual can make a different choice. The plan must allow the covered employee or the covered employee’s spouse, however, to elect continuation coverage on behalf of all of the other qualified beneficiaries for the same qualifying event. A parent or legal guardian of a qualified beneficiary must also be allowed to elect on behalf of a minor child.
If a qualified beneficiary waives continuation coverage during the election period, he or she must be permitted to later revoke the waiver of coverage and elect continuation coverage, as long as the revocation is done before the end of the election period. If a waiver is later revoked, however, the plan is permitted to make continuation coverage begin on the date the waiver was revoked.
If you have questions about COBRA compliance, we have answers. Contact us to speak to a consultant today.